FDA Advisers Weigh Approval of Genetically Modified
MONDAY, Sept. 20 (HealthDay News) -- U.S. Food and Drug
Administration advisers begin two days of hearings Monday on
whether to recommend approval of genetically modified salmon for
humans to eat.
If the advisers recommend approval, it would mark the first time
a genetically modified animal has been approved for America's
dinner plates and restaurant menus. Currently, genetically modified
soybeans and corn are being sold for people to eat.
The developer of the genetically modified salmon, Waltham,
Mass.-based AquaBounty Technologies, believes that, if approved,
the fish could help reduce pollution, disease and other problems
associated with saltwater fish farms, as well as provide an
alternative source of seafood to help reduce the impact of
But opponents of approval, including many consumer advocates,
worry that the fish would pose a threat to both the health of
consumers and the environment.
While the FDA isn't compelled to follow the recommendations of
its advisory panels, it usually does so.
On Sept. 3, a scientific panel of experts that advises the FDA
paved the way for the approval of the genetically modified salmon,
calling it "as safe as food from conventional Atlantic salmon."
The FDA's Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee went on to say
that the fish -- AquAdvantage Salmon developed by AquaBounty
Technologies -- contained the same amount of nutrients and had "no
biologically relevant differences" from ordinary farmed Atlantic
That's what worries consumer advocates, who say approving the
salmon is opening the door to all sorts of genetically engineered
animals, such as pigs and other mammals.
The FDA is regulating genetically engineered animals as it would
a new veterinary drug, which means that much of the research and
information about the product is being kept confidential, said
Wenonah Hauter, executive director of Food & Water Watch in
"We don't know if it's safe for humans to eat and the only research that has been done was done by the company," according to Hauter. "The FDA is an under-resourced agency that has had so much trouble with the regulatory system for foods -- we've had tainted eggs, poisonous peanuts and other contaminations -- and is now taking on something in a very non-transparent way."
Recently, Food & Water Watch was joined by 30 other animal
welfare, consumer, environmental and fisheries groups, including
the Sierra Club, which issued a statement citing concerns that the
fish could escape and pose an environmental threat. Previously,
another group of consumer advocates and others warned that
"transgenic fish" could introduce new or unknown allergens into the
AquaBounty creates its salmon by taking a growth gene from the
Chinook salmon and a gene "promoter" from the ocean pout, another
type of fish, said John Buchanan, AquaBounty's director of research
and development. The pout gene promoter simply turns on the Chinook
salmon growth gene, and is not actually "expressed" [active] in the
modified fish. The resulting salmon grow to market weight about
twice as fast as ordinary Atlantic salmon, though they don't get
While it typically takes about three years for salmon to grow to
market weight, AquaBounty's salmon get there in about 18 months,
To safeguard the environment, Buchanan said the eggs will be
treated so that all fish that grow from them will be sterile
females. That means they will not be able to reproduce, nor will
they come into contact with males to reproduce with, said Buchanan,
whose firm would sell the treated eggs.
While farm-raised salmon are typically grown in ocean-based
tanks, the genetically modified fish would be grown in land-based
tanks, also minimizing the chances of escape, he said.
"We have done a tremendous amount of work geared toward regulatory approval to show that the fish is healthy and safe," Buchanan said.
Genetically modified animals have been produced since the 1970s,
according to background information in the FDA's briefing
materials, but none have been approved for human consumption.
AquaBounty said bringing the salmon to market would take at
least 18 months after approval. Farmers who want to grow the fish
would also need FDA approval of their facilities.
One question for consumers is whether packaging would be
required to specify that the salmon is genetically modified. The
FDA will consider that issue during the public hearings.
Read what the U.S. Food and Drug Administration advisory panel
had to say about
genetically modified salmon.
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