Compulsive Eaters May Have 'Food Addiction,' Study
MONDAY, April 4 (HealthDay News) -- People who are compulsive
eaters show similar activity in the same brain regions as people
who are addicted to drugs or alcohol, according to new
In particular, exposure to certain food "cues" -- in this case,
pictures of a chocolate milk shake -- activated the brain's reward
"This confirms that addiction to food is tied into reward centers," said Bonnie Levin, associate professor of neurology and director, division of neuropsychology at the University of Miami School of Medicine. "It's a biologically driven process, not just a behavioral problem."
Levin was not involved with the study, which appears online
today and in the August issue of
Archives of General Psychiatry.
This isn't the first time scientists have seen clues that
certain people may have a food addiction similar to substance
dependence, especially since both drugs and food trigger the
release of dopamine. However, this is the first time the
correlation has been noted in people who actually qualify as "food
addicts" on an accepted measurement of food addiction.
Here, about 40 healthy young women with body sizes ranging from
lean to obese were first tested with the Yale Food Addiction Scale,
then monitored with functional magnetic resonance imaging
Each woman was first shown a picture of a chocolate milkshake
and an image of a glass of water.
They then were asked to actually taste the milkshake (four
scoops of vanilla ice cream, 2-percent milk and 2 tablespoons of
chocolate syrup) or a solution which tasted like natural saliva
(plain water would have activated parts of the brain related to
The researchers picked milkshakes not only because they have a
high fat and sugar content (sugar has been most consistently linked
with food addiction), but also because they could be consumed
relatively smoothly through a small tube in the mouth. In contrast,
chewing associated with candy bars or other forms of sweets would
have caused the participants to move their head during the
One hypothesis was borne out almost immediately: Women with
higher food-addiction scores showed more activity in the parts of
the brain associated with addiction when exposed to pictures of
delectable chocolate milkshakes.
But, unexpectedly, when sampling the actual food, women showed
less activation, which could be because "the brain just gets
flooded all the time, which shuts down some of reward reactors,"
explained study lead author Ashley N. Gearhardt, a doctoral
candidate in clinical psychology at Yale University's Rudd Center
in New Haven. "You may think it's going to be the best thing you
ever tasted but it doesn't meet expectations. That's maybe why they
In the study, the authors noted that one-third of American
adults are now obese and obesity-related disease is the second
leading cause of preventable death. They also explained that
further research was necessary to clarify their results, pointing
out, for example, that their study did not measure hunger (which
could have an impact on the scores) and was confined only to
Despite some limitations, the researchers felt the specific
nerve patterns of brain activation in some subjects suggested
addiction, and were especially worried by the finding that mere
images of food could start the brain racing.
"What I see as a bigger concern is really our food environment. If you think of these cues as starting to trigger the problem, the worst environment you could possibly be in is the one we have," said Gearhardt. "All the billboards, all the vending machines. If you changed each of these into an alcohol cue and you were trying to recover from alcoholism, it would be impossible."
"Advertising is everywhere and it exerts a powerful influence over our behavior. But it can have a positive impact, too, by helping people develop more successful self-control strategies, modulate food cravings and make healthier choices," Levin said.
Another concern was that about 10 percent of people who didn't
necessarily qualify as food addicts also showed some activation in
the related brain regions.
"Even though a small percentage might be full-blown food addicts, some may be showing subclinical symptoms like a lot of cravings," Gearhardt said. "This could have a widespread cost on public health."
Gearhardt is hoping that the study will spur the scientific
community to accept food addiction as a disease, thereby reducing
stigma among heavier people and leading to more effective ways for
them to lose weight.
"We beat ourselves up in this society: 'This is my fault,'" Gearhardt said. "When we finally decided to see alcohol having the potential to cause an addictive process, we stopped blaming people and started helping people."
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